A SUMMARY OF THE CAMBRIDGE
PLAN . The physicians who advise Cambridge Plan patrons are key participants in
the diet process. This summary will acquaint those physicians with The Cambridge
Plan, its methods, its history, and the research which led to its development.
Worldwide attention is focusing on the CAMBRIDGE DIET™, A significant
breakthrough in the treatment of obesity and the foundation for long-term
8 1/2 years of research and clinical testing-by British
scientists and doctors at the University of Cambridge, England.
* Fat loss
comparable to that achieved by starvation-without the harmful side effects.
Nitrogen balance-from the precise ratio of carbohydrate to protein to fat so
primarily the fatty tissue, not the essential lean body mass, is eliminated.
* 100% of US RDA vitamins and minerals-for which requirements have been
* 75% of US RDA protein levels.
* All trace elements and
electrolytes-specified as essential by the National Academy of Sciences.
the vital nutrients in only 330 calories-so rapid, effective weight loss is
* Approved as the sole source of
nutrition-for periods as long as four
* No harmful side effects-reported in any clinical tests.
* No drugs or preservatives-as part of its formula.
* So unique, it's patented! In
* Average weight loss of 16 to 20 pounds in four
weeks-for people who could not lose weight with any other low-calorie program.
* Serum cholesterol decreased by 21%.
* Triglycerides reduced by 45%.
metabolic or clinical complications-with diabetes patients.
* No abnormalities
in cardiac function, evaluated by EKG-with diabetes patients.
* Weight loss
results equal to those from gastroplasty-the radical surgical procedure of
stapling the stomach-but without its risks.
* Personal encouragement
and support by Cambridge Counselors-to complement the professional guidance of
In all instances
The advice of a physician should be sought.
Individuals who have heart and cardiovascular conditions, stroke, kidney
disease, diabetes, gout, hypoglycemia, chronic infections, the very elderly,
growing children, adolescents, or anyone under medical care for any other
condition should diet only under direct medical supervision. Pregnant women and
nursing mothers should not be on any weight-loss program.
But, weight loss is
just the beginning of the CAMBRIDGE DIET program. Once ideal body weight is
attained, the CAMBRIDGE DIET serves as the foundation for a permanent,
nutritionally balanced dietary regime which makes maintaining desired body
weight as simple as A- ADDING B - BALANCED C- CALORIES by selecting
from among the delicious pre-planned menus from the CAMBRIDGE- KITCHEN.
Nutritionally balanced 'food blocks' of 50,100,200,and 400 calories are added to
the 330 calories of the three Cambridge meals until the body's daily
"calorie quotient" is determined. It's easy. It's effective. Cambridge
can make a trim, properly nourished, vital body a reality for life.
THE CAMBRIDGE PLAN INTERNATIONAL 1981.
A REVIEW AND ANALYSIS
Worldwide attention is focusing on an
innovative nutrition program, the CAMBRIDGE DIET, which not only represents a
significant breakthrough in the treatment of obesity but also serves as the
foundation for long-term balanced nutrition.
THE CAMBRIDGE DIET™
The rapid weight-loss regimen based on the Cambridge Diet was first announced in
the Inter- national Journal of Obesity (1978) 2, 321-332. Developed by a team of
British researchers at the University of Cambridge, this very low-calorie
formula diet combines a precise balance of carbohydrate (44 grams, including
non-digestible carbohydrate for fiber), high-grade complete protein (33 grams),
and fat (3 grams), in a powdered form. In its daily total intake of 330
calories, it also contains 100% US RDA vitamins and minerals for which
requirements have been determined, 75% of US RDA protein levels, and all trace
elements and electrolytes specified as essential by the National Academy of
Sciences. Available in a variety of beverages, soups and puddings, which are
highly palatable, the Cambridge Diet is easily mixed with hot or cold water. The
formula for the Cambridge Diet is so unique, it has been granted two US patents
and patents in most western European countries and Australia; additional patents,
both domestic and foreign, are pending. The Cambridge Diet, which is rapidly
gaining widespread popularity and acceptance throughout the country among the
general public, is currently marketed throughout the United States by Cambridge
Plan International, headquartered in Monterey, California, through a network of
inde- pendent "Cambridge Counselors' Overseas distribution is forthcoming.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAMBRIDGE DIET™ ALAN N. HOWARD, Ph.D., et al.
An internationally acknowledged authority on
obesity and cardiovascular disease, ALAN N. HOWARD, Ph.D., F.R.I.C. (Fellow,
Royal Institute of Chemistry) led the team of scientists and doctors who
researched, developed, and clinically tested the Cambridge Diet. Dr. Howard, who
has headed the Lipid Laboratory of the Department of Medicine at the University of
Cambridgesincel969, received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. from Cambridge. From
1954tol960, he was a member of the Scientific Staff of the Medical Research
Council, Dunn Nutritional Laboratory, Cambridge, the premier research
establishment on nutrition in England. For the next two years he was a member of the External Scientific Staff,
Medical Research Council, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge. During the period of 1962-1969, immediately
prior to his present appointment, Dr.
Howard held the prestigious Elmore Research Fellowship, and other coveted
research fellowships, in the Department of Pathology at the University of
For more than 20
years Dr. Howard's primary areas of research have
been coronary heart disease and obesity from the nutritional viewpoint, and he
has edited several books and published over 120 highly regarded papers on these
subjects. His involvement in professional societies is extensive. He currently
serves as Editor of the International Journal of Obesity, is on the Editorial
Board of Atherosclerosis, was secretary of the European Atherosclerosis Group
(1963-1968), and Secretary for the Association of the Study of Obesity
(1969-1970). He is also Chairman of the Brit- ish Food Education Society and was
asked by the BBC-TV to participate in its 10-part 1973 Series 'Don't Just Sit
There" In 1974 he was a member of the organizing committee and editor of
the proceedings of the First International Congress on Obesity (London).
the noted doctors and scientists associated with Dr. Howard in his work was IAN
McLEAN BAIRD, M.D., Consulting Physician of West Middlesex Hospital, one of the
medical centers where the clinical testing was conducted. Dr. Baird has also had
a distinguished professional career, serving as a Clinical Tutor at the
University of London; Honorable Senior Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacology at
University College Hospital, London; and Senior Medical Registrar at the Royal
Infirmary, Sheffield. He was also a Leverhulme Research Scholar in the Medical
Department of Therapy at the Royal Infirmary at Sheffield and, in the United
States, a Welcome Traveling Fellow at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, and
Harvard Medical School. He was named a Fellow in the Royal College
of Physicians (London) in 1973, and he is a member Of the British Society Of
Gastroenterology and the British Pharmacology Society. He, too, has a long
list of publications to his credit.
Dr. Howard and his colleagues spent 81/2
years in search of the ultimate, safe, quick weight-loss diet. They knew that
the complex chemical balance of the body had to be maintained so that the body
and mind can be at their best. Balance was the key to unlocking the secret of
the ideal weight-loss formula.
One of their major goals was to provide
balance to assure that the primary tissue the diet would eliminate would be the
fatty tissue, not the lean tissue, the protein-built tissue, that is vital to
the body. And they succeeded. The precise proportions of carbohydrate, protein,
and fat in the Cambridge Diet achieve this critical balance. In addition, the
amount of carbohydrate is exactly what is needed to metabolize the protein and
fat of the formula so that the body must then catabolize stored, unwanted fat to
meet its additional energy needs. All the essential vitamins and minerals the
body needs were then added in the proper amounts and proportions, one to the
other, to ensure their maximum potency and effectiveness. Of paramount
importance in any reducing regime is the provision of adequate amounts of sodium,
potassium, and magnesium, which are essential for normal cardiac function.
They are present in the Cambridge Diet.
Because the rate of metabolism varies
from one person to another, not everyone loses weight at the same rate. But in
his clinical research, including even the most stubborn cases, Dr. Howard
recorded an average weight loss of 16 to 20 pounds in four weeks. Other
medically supervised case histories show people on the Cambridge Diet safely
losing as much as 15 pounds in one week and 35 pounds in four weeks. Many users
have lost much more rapidly. One man, who gained weight on a diet in an Army
hospital, has lostl2l pounds in four months on the Cambridge Diet under doctor's
In addition to proving the
efficacy of the Cambridge Diet as a
rapid weight-loss regime, Dr. Howard's study showed its safety, with no subjects
involved in the clinical tests experiencing any harmful side effects.
significance, however, were the tangential results which showed that, after
* Serum cholesterol was decreased by 21%.
* Triglycerides were
reduced by 45%.
* Serum lipids in hyperlipaemic patients were normalized.
dramatic achievements, over and above weight loss, demonstrate some of the extra
benefits to be derived from the Cambridge Diet.
Diet and its precepts held the spotlight at the 1980 satellite meeting of the
Third International Conference on Obesity held near Rome, Italy. This conference
brought together over a thousand of the leading nutritionists in the world, all of
whom have a scientific interest in obesity or are practitioners of bariatric
medicine. Several papers were presented on scientific studies which tested the
success and safety of the Cambridge Diet and diets based on its precepts.
Contaido, G. DiBiase, P. Mattioli, M. Mancini-Semeiotica Medica, 2nd Medical
School, University of Naples, Italy.
control is reached after a few days ... as shown by decreased concentration of
serum glucose and
normalization of cholesterol and triglyceride. These positive findings have been
obtained without any metabolic and clinical complication ... No abnormalities in
cardiac function, evaluated by ECG were detected during the whole period of
treatment. No major disturbances were detected as: dizziness, hypo tension, dry
skin, hair loss, etc., which can emerge during drastic calorie restriction in
general Decrease in body weight was constant and remarkable ... (with an average
loss of 32 pounds over approximately 7 weeks). ... Our clinical and laboratory
observations reassure also on the safety of this dietary treatment which can be
easily performed on an outpatient basis.
of Obesity with a New Liquid Formula Diet-Noel Hickey, Pierce Runana, Ian
Graham, Leslie Daly, Geoffrey Bourke, Ristcard Mulcahy-Department of Community
Medicine and Epidemiology, University College, Dublin, and the Cardiac
Department, St. Vincent's Hospital, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.
biochemical changes were recorded, except forserum cholesterol and triglycerides.
A mean cholesterol reduction of 24.Omgldl and triglyceride reduction of 59.Omgldl
was noted over the 8-weekperiod. Ketonuria was not a problem...The possibility
that total starvation may lead to myocardial damage, hyperuricaemia, ketosis,
and negative nitrogen balance makes this form of treatment unacceptable. Using
the present semi-synthetic diet, ketonuria and hyperuricaemia did not occur No
significant change occurred in blood sugar and bitirubin levels, and serum
electrolytes remained unchanged at 4 and 8 weeks. Hunger did not appear to be a
major difficulty for the patients. The advantage of using the present diet
over starvation is that hospital admission is not necessary and the metabolic
consequences of starvation do not result. Compliance with the regime may be
better than with total starvation, and weight-loss is closer to that achieved by
starvation than by conventional diets of 800-1200 Kcal.
The Influence of Low
Calorie (240 Kcal/day) Protein-Carbohydrate Diet on Serum Lipid Levels in Obese
Subjects -J. A. Schouten, C. Popp-Snijders, E. A. van der Veen of the Department
of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Free University, Amsterdam-, and C.
M. van Gent, H. A. van der Voort of the Gaubius Institute, Health Research
Organization TNO, Herenstraat 5d, 2313 AD Leiden, The Netherlands.
reduction was obtained in all participants ... (with a) mean reduction (of) 174
pounds in two weeks... Total cholesterol was significantly reduced accompanied
by a similar percentage reduction of HDL-cholesterol.
THE COPENHAGEN PLAFA
PROJECT: A Randomized Trial of Gastroplasty Versus Very Low Calorie Diet in the
Treatment of Severe Obesity-Teis Andersen, M.D., Ole Backer, M.D., Knud H.
Stockholm, M.D., and Flemming Quaade, M.D.-Department of Medicine, Division of
Endo- crinology, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, KD-2650 Hvidovre,
Denmark, and Surgical Department F, Bispebjerg Hospital, 2400 Copenhagen,
A drastic reduction of energy intake is the central remedy in the
treatment of morbid obesity as well as in preventing regain of an obtained
weight loss. Two treatments have recently come into focus for permanent weight
control: First, the very low calorie diet (VLCD) and Second, gastroplasty as the
least mutilating operation among the new generation of surgical procedures ...
Consecutive patients ... suffering from morbid obesity ... (were) randomized to
either gastroplasty ... or to a very low calorie diet ... Preliminary results
show a substantial weight loss without significant differences between the
The cumulative evidence of these, as well as other, research
projects clearly supports the efficacy of the Cambridge Diet and its precepts
and the complete safety for the patients who participated in the studies.
Meriting particular attention are the facts that: * Weight losses are described
as "substantial' or 'constant and remarkable'
* "No abnormalities in
cardiac function, evaluated by ECG," were recorded.
* Levels of both SERUM
CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDES were substantially reduced.
* Patients who were on
the formula diet achieved EQUAL weight loss with those who under- went the
extreme treatment of gastroplasty, which carries a mortality rate of 1% to 3%.
Additional supportive testimony has been forthcoming from
other eminent authorities... DR. BAIRD, who was the clinician at west Middlesex
University Hospital, London, responsible for the medical care of the obese
patients on the Cambridge Diet research program, summarizes his findings as
Many patients receiving the Cambridge Diet were studied for periods of
1-3 months with regular biochemical and electrocardiographic monitoring. Based
on the results obtained, it is my professional opinion that this method of
losing weight is safe and may be used without medical supervision for periods of
up to six weeks except in persons currently under the care of a physician or
currently taking prescribed medication. These should consult their physician
before undertaking this or any other diet program me. The diet should not be
recommended for use in children or in lactating or pregnant women, and in old
age. No cardiac effects due to the diet were recorded in any patient consuming
the Cambridge Diet or similar low calorie regime used in our studies. In my
opinion this distinguishes the Cambridge Diet from the so-called 'liquid
protein' diets, in which several cardiac deaths occurred, but only then after
two months after consuming the liquid protein diet (Life Science Research Office
Report, 1979) Furthermore, the liquid protein diet consisting of low-grade gelatine
most often did not contain essential minerals such as potassium and
magnesium. The Cambridge Diet contains all the recommended and essential
minerals and vitamins.
One of the
objects of the numerous clinical trials I have supervised in the past ten years
was to find a suitable alter- native treatment to complete starvation, which was
as effective but safe, and posed no danger to the dieter's health. It is my
opinion that the Cambridge Diet has achieved that goal because:
1. There is no
evidence of electrolyte depletion (shortage of sodium, potassium, and calcium)
or dehydration which ac- companies total starvation. This was confirmed
independently (Wilson et al., Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 321612-1616,1979).
Although there is some loss of nitrogen from the body in the first few weeks on
the Cambridge Diet, this amount is modest and acceptable. Nitrogen equilibrium
is achieved within six weeks and there is no evidence of any clinical harm to
the patients due to the initial loss of nitrogen.
3. There are no ECG changes
induced by the diet.
4. There have been no serious adverse reactions in
independent trials carried out in Ireland, Holland, England, Italy and
Scandinavia using diets identified with Cambridge Diet.
DENNIS JONES, Ph.D., a
nutritional pathologist and chemist from The Netherlands, designed and monitored
clinical trials of a diet based on the precepts of the Cambridge Diet. He
In my opinion the Cambridge Diet is a nutritionally balanced diet.
on my experience with the diet, it can be just as effective as total starvation
in the treatment of obesity, but as safe as normal eating, even on prolonged
Based upon my personal experience and my review of medical literature on
the subject, it is my opinion that the Cambridge Diet is an effective weight
loss regimen, which may be safely used as the sole source of nutrition with- out
supervision for continuous periods of eight to twelve weeks provided users are
advised as follows:
1. Users who are presently under medical supervision for any
reason, or are taking any form of medically pre- scribed drug, should consult
their physician before embarking on this or any other diet.
2. The following
persons, even if not presently under medical supervision, should be advised not
to embark on this or any other diet: pregnant or lactating women, growing
children or very elderly persons.
In my opinion, the Diet, used as specified
above, is quite harmless, and does provide a means of significant weight loss
and improved health to many persons whose obesity, if it continues, will pose a
severe threat to their health and their longevity.
GEORGE A. BRAY, M.D.,
Professor of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, in Los Angeles, California,
and Associate Chief, Division of Metabolism and Nutrition, Harbor-UCLA Medical
Center, Torrance, California, expresses his professional opinion in this way:
Obesity and overweight are major problems in the United States with 14% of all
and 24% of all women between 18 and 74 years of age being more than 20%
overweight Life insurance data indicate that the hazards associated with being
overweight increase significantly with the degree of excess weight...
which are available for weight reduction can be divided into those between 800
and 1000 calories, which are commonly referred to as 'low calorie diets' and
those between 100 and 800 calories which are referred to as "very low calorie
diets.' Below 100 calories per day would be equivalent to total fasting. In each
of the categories of diets there are balanced and unbalanced diets. A
balanced diet is one in which all three major macronutrients (protein,
carbohydrate and fat) are present and in reasonable proportions. An unbalanced
diet is one in which the percentage of one (or two) of the macronutrients is
greatly increased in proportion to the rest.
It is very widely agreed that total
fasting or the use of diets below 100 calories per day for an extended period of
time should only be undertaken under direct medical supervision or in the
hospital. One of the problems with total fasting for extended periods is the
loss of protein from the body, with the resulting depletion of 'lean body
Not to be confused with the liquid protein diets, the diet developed
by Dr Alan Howard and his colleagues in Cam- bridge and London, England, has
used high-quality proteins and has been supplemented with carbohydrate as well
as most of the vitamins and minerals. Nitrogen losses during this diet have been
evaluated in at least two published studies. Protein and carbohydrate in the
proportions used in this diet clearly reduce nitrogen loss, and in some
individuals nitrogen equilibrium can be achieved. However, small losses of
nitrogen, and a small reduction in lean body mass are probably to be expected
since as an individual loses weight, he no longer needs the larger muscle mass
to support the fat which has been lost.
The composition of the Cambridge Diet is
based on the findings of Dr Howard. The protein sources are nonfat milk solids,
soy protein and hydrolized vegetable protein, and the carbohydrates are lactose,
fructose and soy flour There is nothing apparent in this formulation which
should be in any way harmful or deleterious.
THE WEIGHT-LOSS PROBLEM
of overweight is universal. And, for decades, scientists throughout the world
have been searching for the ideal weight-loss diet. Hundreds of less-than-ideal
answers have been put forth-the grapefruit diet, the "Drinking Man's
Diet," the bran diet, the carbohydrate diet, the high-protein diet-one after the
These "fad' diets 'trick' the body into losing weight by emphasizing
a certain type of food-or nutrient while eliminating-or nearly eliminating,
another essential nutrient. This "unbalanced" reducing diet can have
only a temporary effect. As soon as the diet is over, the body immediately tries
to replace the essential nutrients of which it has been deprived. Then, what so
frequently happens, is that the just-lost pounds quickly reappear when the the
unwitting dieter resumes normal eating and satisfies his/her "cravings".
ride between weight loss and weight gain has discouraged many dieters who lose
the 'same pounds" over and over again. This does not happen with the
Cambridge Diet. Its balance and sound nutritional principles make long-lasting
weight loss results possible.
THE CAMBRIDGE" LONG-TERM NUTRITION PROGRAM"
Losing weight with the Cambridge Diet is only the beginning of what can be a
life-long nutrition program after desired body weight has been attained.
During the course of the maximum weight-loss program, Cambridge provides one to two
weeks of "maintenance meals" of 800 calories a day, which are placed
between four-week periods of the reducing plan. To ensure continued proper
nutrition, the Cambridge Diet is an integral 330- calorie-a-day part of these
meals. It continues to serve a vital purpose once regular eating is
re-established on a long-term basis. The guesswork about getting adequate
nutrients every day is eliminated. They're all there. What is needed for a
complete permanent eating program is the addition of the right number of
calories to maintain the individual's ideal body weight.
consultation with Drs. Howard and Bray, Cambridge International developed a
variety of main courses, appetizers, side dishes, and "snacks" that
also emphasize the proper nutritional balance among carbohydrate, protein, and
fat. As traditional foods are added to a per- son's daily eating regimen, the
introduction of 50,100,200, or 400-calorie "food blocks' comprised of
thoughtfully conceived dishes maintains the proper dietary balance.
three Cambridge formula servings each day at 330 calories, two 400-calorie meals
are first added, for a total daily calorie intake of 1130. The individual stays
on this program for a week, while keeping track of his/her weight. If weight
loss continues, one 200-calorie "mini-meal" or side dish is added for
another week of "weight watching" Other food "blocks"
ranging from 50 to 100 calories can be added, or subtracted, until the
appropriate daily calorie count to maintain weight is achieved.
menus are appetizing, easy to prepare (none takes more than 40 minutes), and
visu- ally attractive, sensible, nutritious eating habits become a way of life
for people who previously never knew they could escape from the vicious cycle
weight loss/weight gain.
Of all the weight reduction programs on the
market today, only the Cambridge Diet is so unique, it's patented. That fact
alone signifies its extraordinary qualities. In addition, encouragement and
support by Cambridge Counselors complements the professional guidance of
physicians and provides personal attention that helps motivate continued
compliance with the Cambridge Program.
The research and testing that resulted in
its development have already been discussed extensively and supported by the
opinions of eminent medical authorities and nutritional experts. If, after reading this material, you wish additional information, Cambridge Plan International
welcomes your inquiries. Questions may be addressed directly to the President,
Vaughn Feather, Cambridge Plan International, Garden Road, Monterey, California
International advises that individuals consult their physician before embarking on any exercise or
Appropriate Cambridge Literature
carries the following message:
IMPORTANT NOTICE-PLEASE READ
Consult your doctor before starting this diet. In particular
individuals who have heart and cardiovascular conditions, stroke, kidney disease, diabetes, gout,
hypoglycemia, chronic infections, the very elderly, growing children, adolescents, or anyone under medical care for any other condition should diet only
under direct medical supervision. Your doctor can advise you whether you have
any of the above conditions or for any reason you should not be on this or any
other diet Pregnant women and nursing mothers should not be on any weight-loss
program. The Cambridge Diet formula is designed for use as a sole source of
nutrition for periods of not to exceed four consecutive weeks at any one time.
Because the rate of weight loss is dependent upon metabolic factors which vary
from individual to individual, not everyone will achieve the same results with
the Cambridge Diet. Clinical tests showed subjects losing up to 15 pounds in one
week, up to 35pounds in four weeks, with the average weightless in four weeks
from 16to 20pounds for persons who remained on the diet.
Prepared by Marilyn
LaRocque, BA, MJ, APR 70095 12/81